Saturday, April 11, 2015

What is Electricity ?

We use electricity everyday. Without it we would not be able to watch t.v., listen to the radio, have hot water, use a microwave to heat our food and many of the other things we do every day.

But what is electricity ?

First you have to know what an atom is. An atom is the smallest part of something. It is microscopic and every thing is made up of atoms.

Atoms are made up of three parts. They are

Protons These parts of an atom have a positive charge. They are in the middle of the atom, called the nucleus and they do not move.

Neutrons These parts of an atom have no charge. They are neutral and part of the nucleus of an atom with the protons.

Electrons These parts of the atom are very small and weigh a lot less then the protons and neutrons. Electrons are not part of the nucleus of the atom, instead they move around in orbits outside the nucleus. Electrons are the only part of an atom that moves.

So what does this have to do with electricity ?

Electricity is the flow of moving electrons. When the electrons flow it is called an electrical current.

To understand why electrons flow you need to understand that atoms can lose electrons by rubbing against another material. Think about when you rub your head against a balloon. Believe it or not, your hair is actually getting some electrons from the balloon. Because your hair has more electrons then protons, we say it is negatively charged.
But what about the balloon? Well the balloon has more protons than electrons so it is positively charged.

Electricity is the flow of electrons through a conductor. Materials that conduct electricity easily have a weak hold on their outermost electrons, allowing them to move easily from one atom to another. When an electron moves to an adjacent atom, it displaces another electron, and this flow is electric current.

The flow of electrons is caused by the electrical charge of particles. Electrons have a negative charge, and protons have a positive charge. When an atom loses an electron, it becomes positively charged. When an atom gains an extra electron, it becomes negative. Since like charges repel, an electron moving from one atom to another displaces other electrons, pushing them further down the line.

Since electric current is caused by the flow of electrons, in a metallic conductor, it is the flow of negative charges through the material. However, in other materials, such as semiconductors, the charge carried can be positive or neutral. Benjamin Franklin, in his studies of electricity, theorized the possibility of positive charge carriers and created a standard that electrical engineers use to this day. To simplify electrical diagrams, the current is shown to flow from the positive to the negative pole, even though in many cases the negative pole is the originator of the current.

Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field. There are two types of electric charges: positive and negative. Positively charged substances are repelled from other positively charged substances, but attracted to negatively charged substances; negatively charged substances are repelled from negative and attracted to positive. An object is negatively charged if it has an excess of electrons, and is otherwise positively charged or uncharged.

The Need for Electricity in Today's Life

Electricity is one of those discoveries that have changed the daily life of everybody in this Universe. Electricity is the key component to modern technology and without it most of the things that we use everyday simply could not work, and would never have been created.

The discovery of electricity is one of the greatest achievements of man. Its use has made our lives so comfortable that, today, scientists in all countries are trying their utmost to use it more and more for all purposes.

Our lives are improved no end by electricity, and it’s certainly true that most peoples’ living quality would be significantly reduced and affected if electricity were to somehow disappear. Electricity is the basis of most modern inventions and naturally without it, the 21st century would be comparable to the 19th.

Electricity has helped to remove darkness and increase human activity. Early man relied on fire for the luxuries of light, heat and cooking. Today, Electricity plays a huge part in our everyday lives.

From the time we wake up in the morning until we hit the pillow at night, our daily life is dependent on electricity.

Whether it is at home, at school, the local shopping centre or our parents' workplace, our daily routines rely heavily on the use of electricity.

Even our first meal of the day is heavily dependent on electricity. The fridge that keeps all our food cool and fresh needs electricity to run.

Indeed, modern society would be incredibly different. Our mobile phones, our computers, the Internet, our heating systems, our televisions, our light bulbs - nearly everything in the home would be completely different.

Imagine how different things would be today without the Internet. The World Wide Web has had a huge effect on our lives. It has made everybody more aware of the world they live in, and it’s allowed them to learn about our surroundings and know more about how near enough everything within modern society works.

It is our gateway for knowledge, and allows us to find out nearly anything within a matter of seconds, hence, electricity has made us an incredibly intelligent and aware society.

It’s also allowed us to become healthier. Without electricity, hospitals would have significantly less medical equipment available to help people with medical problems. Electricity, hence, saves lives and allows people to live longer. So not only are we are more aware and intelligent society but we have become much healthier.

Powerful lights are used in factories, schools, hospitals and in all other dark places where men have to work for the benefit of others or for themselves. Men are able to got anywhere even in the darkest of nights.

Electricity has also enabled men to increase the production of their goods. Huge machines are operated in large factories with the help of electricity for the manufacture of useful goods. These machines work ceaselessly and produce enormous quantities of goods, which are distributed throughout the world, for the comfort of people in all parts of the earth.

Even to transport goods and people to the remotest regions of the earth, electricity is extremely useful. Land, air and sea transport are all assisted by the use of electricity. People can now travel in great comfort and ease for business or pleasure to any part of the world. In the same way, goods can be sent to all the corners of the earth with the greatest of ease.

Electricity is even used for the treatment of some people who suffer from peculiar diseases. In short, the use of electricity has changed the lives of men to such an extent that life without it is almost unthinkable.